You can download these publications by
clicking on the PDF links. Technical information is provided below.
G. (2000). Towards understanding
practices of medical interpreting: Interpreters' involvement in history
taking. Discourse Studies, 2(4), 387-419. PDF
Abstract: This article
examines the role of medical interpreters in structuring interaction
physicians and their patients. Through a detailed analysis of
involvement in the history-taking part of medical consultations, it
is demonstrated that their participation in this activity is organized
by their understanding of its goals rather than by the task of
alone. Specifically, the different ways in which interpreters
in history taking display their orientation to obtaining from the
patient and conveying to the doctor medically relevant information
about the patient’s symptoms – and doing so as effectively as possible.
Medical interpreters are found to share the physicians’ normative
orientation to obtaining objectively
formulated information about relevant biomedical aspects of patients’
conditions. Thus, far from being passive participants in the
interaction, interpreters will often pursue issues they believe to be
diagnostically relevant, just as they may choose to reject patients’
information offerings if they contain subjective accounts of their
- Bolden, G.
(2003). Doing being late:
of the Russian particle -to in personal state inquiries. CLIC:
Crossroads of Language, Interaction, and Culture, 5, 3-27.
paper examines interactional functions of the Russian enclitic particle
-to in “howareyou” type inquiries. Drawing on a
corpus of recorded telephone conversations and using the methodology of
conversation analysis, this
paper argues that by marking a particular "howareyou" question with
the speaker indicates that the inquiry is late relative to where it
should have been appropriately launched. Two senses are lateness are
one is “structural,” dealing with the conventional ways in which
conversation is organized; the other is “normative,” which is meant to
refer to the
speaker’s judgment about the question’s importance relative to its
- Bolden, G.
(2004). The quote and
Defining boundaries of reported speech in conversational Russian. Journal
Abstract: This article
investigates ways in which direct reported speech is set apart from the
current speaker’s own talk. Drawing on a corpus of conversational
Russian materials, the
article examines ways in which the onset and the offset of reported
are marked in ordinary talk. The analysis shows that in most cases
are separated from other talk at their beginnings and ends through a
of devices including grammatical framing, re-anchoring devices, and
shifts for their onset and several repositioning devices and sequence
organization practices for their offset. There are, however, ambiguous
cases when a particular stretch of talk occurring after a quote is
neither clearly separated from the quote nor clearly marked as being
part of it. Such cases, referred to in this study as ‘fading out,’
appear to have specific interactional functions allowing the speaker to
deal with several potential problems. The findings of this study
demonstrate the importance of studying linguistic phenomena on the
basis of real conversational data and suggest that the different
ways in which reported speech boundaries are demarcated (or not)
participants with a set of tools they can employ for a variety of
- Bolden, G.
(2005). Delayed and incipient
discourse markers "-to" and "so" in Russian and English conversation.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of California, Los
Angeles. Email me at firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This dissertation investigates ways in which two
different languages, English and Russian, deal with a common
interactional issue - how to show that the current utterance is
occasioned by something other than the immediately preceding talk. The
focus is on two discourse markers, the
Russian particle '-to' and the English marker 'so,' both of which are
involved, in somewhat different ways, in indicating that the action
implemented by the utterance should or could have been performed
earlier. Using the methodology of conversation analysis, the
dissertation investigates the communicative functions of these
discourse markers in contexts of their use through a close analysis of
recorded, naturally occurring conversations.
The first part of the dissertation examines the use of the Russian
particle '-to' in turns of talk that initiate new action sequences. I
argue that the particle marks the action implemented by the utterance
as delayed by reference to the organization of sequences and larger
activities, the overall structural organization of the conversation as
a unit, and in relation to real time events. The analysis shows that
speakers use the particle not only for structural reasons but also for
normative ones - to display their interactional accountability for the
action's late placement.
The second part of the dissertation explores the English discourse
marker 'so,' also focusing on its use in sequence-initial positions.
The analysis demonstrates that 'so' can be characterized as a marker of
emergence from incipiency, indicating that the action being launched by
the turn has been
on the speaker's agenda. The dissertation explores ways in which 'so'
can be used to preface actions that have been projected to occur next,
to introduce pending matters, and to retrojectedly mark an action as
having been incipient. 'So' prefacing on new topic initiations is also
contrasted with 'oh' prefacing in the same position, showing that 'so'
and 'oh' can function as indexes of other- and self-regardingness, and,
thereby, be involved in negotiating social relationships.
Pirkko (2006). Retsipient v russkom
raspredelenii funkcij mezhdu otvetami da, nu i tak. (Recipient
in Russian conversation:division of tasks between the response words da, nu and tak). Slavica Helsingiensia 28. Arto
Mustajoki & Pekka Pesonen & Jouko Lindstedt (eds.) University
of Helsinki: Department of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and
study investigates actions by recipients in spontaneous Russian
conversations by focusing on DA, NU and TAK, when they are used as
responses to the main speaker's larger on-going turn. The database for
the study consists of some 7 hours of spontaneous conversations. The
participants of the conversations come from different parts of Russia.
The use of DA, NU and TAK was analyzed by applying the method of
ethnomethodological conversation analysis from the point of view of the
type of the context, the sequential placement of the response and its
manner of production. The particles were analyzed both in contexts in
which they responded to an informing and in affective contexts. The
particles NU and TAK were used by the speakers almost exclusively in
informing contexts, whereas DA was the central response type in
affective contexts. DA was also the most common response to information
with affective implications.
The information, to which the particle NU provided as response, was
often unspesific and projected a spesification or explanation by its
speaker as the next action. DA and TAK, by contrast, treated the
information as one that could be followed and was sufficient in its
local context. As a response to parenthetical information NU responded
to information that was only loosely connected with the mainline of
talk. The particle DA, by contrast, was used as a response to such
parenthetical information, which was more crucial for the larger
on-going activity. Only NU was used as a response that invited the main
speaker to continue a turn that she or he had offered as possibly
complete. NU was also used by the recipient after her or his own
contribution as a continuer.
In affective contexts, DA expressed, depending on its more spesific
context, not only agreement but also other functions, such as giving up
arguing or prior knowledge on the topic being discussed. In addition DA
responses were used to display empathy and identification with the
state of affairs expressed by the co-participant. NU, by contrast, was
seldom used as a response to a turn that expressed affect. When it was
used in affective contexts, it displayed agreement with the
co-participant or just registered an assessment by her or him.
- Bolden, G.
conversations: The discourse particle -to
and the negotiation of interpersonal accountability in closings. Human Communication Research, 34, 99-136. PDF
Abstract: The article
examines how the goals of maintaining and reaffirming interpersonal
relationships are accomplished through the details of talk during
closing sections of social encounters. On the basis of Russian language
telephone conversations between close familiars, the article explicates
ways in which interactions may be reopened and, more specifically, the
role of the Russian discourse particle -to on utterances that raise new
issues in closing environments. The analysis shows that while many
kinds of new matters are commonly raised in conversation closings, only
those that deal with the addressee – and only those raised by the
person who initiated the closing - are marked so that to indicate the
speaker’s accountability for raising the matter late. This suggests
that ways in which new topics are introduced in conversation closings
reflect the speaker’s orientation to displaying concern for and
interest in the addressee.
- Bolden, G.
(forthcoming). Opening up closings in Russian. In G. Raymond, G. H.
J. Heritage (Eds.), Enabling human
conduct: Naturalistic studies of talk-in-interaction in honor of
Emanuel A. Schegloff, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Email me at email@example.com
- Bolden, G.
(2009). Implementing delayed actions, In J. Sidnell (Ed.), Conversation Analysis: Comparative
Perspectives (pp. 326-353), Cambridge: Cambridge University
- Bolden, G.
Beyond answering: Repeat-prefaced responses in conversation. Communication Monographs, 76(2),
121-143. PDF Link
article presents a conversation analytic investigation of one technique
for responding to questions in naturally occurring social interactions:
repeating the question verbatim in part or as a whole before providing
a required response. A close examination of production features of
repeat prefacing in Russian demonstrates that it is used by
conversationalists to resist agendas and presuppositions generated by
questions and other sequence initiating actions. The study shows that
some repeat prefaces characterize questions as problematic by
contesting or outright rejecting its presuppositions or implications.
Depending on how precisely repeat prefaces are articulated, they may
also display the speaker's difficulty in retrieving requested
information. The study extends our understanding of devices
conversationalists can deploy to resist, sidestep, or curtail the
constraints imposed by questioners' interactional agendas, thereby
providing an insight into how communicative goals are discerned,
responded to, and negotiated in social interaction.
- Robinson, J. D., & Bolden, G. B.
(2010). Preference organization of sequence-initiating actions: The
case of explicit account solicitations. Discourse Studies, 12(4), 501-533.
article extends prior conversation analytic research on the preference
organization of sequence-initiating actions. Across two languages
(English and Russian), this article examines one such action:
explicitly soliciting an account for human conduct (predominantly with
why-type interrogatives). Prior work demonstrates that this action
conveys a challenging stance towards the warrantability of the
accountable event/conduct (Bolden and Robinson, forthcoming). When
addressees are somehow responsible for the accountable event/conduct,
explicit solicitations of accounts are frequently critical of, and thus
embody disaffiliation with, addressees. This article demonstrates that,
when explicit solicitations of accounts embody disaffiliation, they are
systematically ‘withheld’ and, thus, can be characterized as
‘dispreferred’ actions. This article also examines: a) deviant cases,
where account solicitations are not withheld, which is a practice for
embodying aggravated disaffiliation; and b) negative cases, where
account solicitations actually embody affiliation , and as such are
typically treated as preferred actions and not withheld.
(2011). On the organization of repair in multiperson
case of “other”-selection in other-initiated repair sequences. Research
on Language & Social Interaction, 44(3), 237-262. PDF
This article examines a previously undocumented
way in which the presence of more than two interlocutors matters for
the organization of repair (Schegloff, Jefferson, & Sacks, 1977):
when the repair initiation is addressed to – and thereby selects as the
next speaker – somebody other than the speaker of the trouble-source
turn (“other”-selection for short). The speaker of the trouble-source
turn is ordinarily the one who is selected to repair it (Sacks,
Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974). Under what circumstances, then, is
“other”-selection used? The analysis shows that, while rare,
“other”-selection in other-initiation of repair is a systematically
deployed practice. In selecting somebody other than the speaker of the
trouble-source turn to provide a repair solution, the repair initiator
orients to two broad considerations (sometimes concurrently): progressivity and social epistemics. The article
examines how these considerations play out in a variety of contexts and
considers implications of “other”-selection for our understanding of
the repair organization.
- Turchik, Anna. (2010).
Конверсационный анализ речевого взаимодействия в ситуации
исследовательского интервью. [Conversation analysis of interaction in
research interview situations.] Disseration. Candidate in Social
Sciences. Moscow. PDF
thesis explores characteristics of sequential organization of
interaction between interviewers and interviewees in research interview
situations. It demonstrates that institutional features of such
interactions impose on and collide with the rules of ordinary
conversation, resulting in communicative failures. The analysis
explores various strategies of speaking in this institutional context.
The thesis argues for the expediency and necessity of applying
conversation analysis to different kinds of interviews, both
standardized and non-standardized, face-to-face and mediated.
- Bolden, G.B. (2012). Across languages and
cultures: Brokering problems of understanding in conversational repair.
Language in Society,
41(1), 97-121. PDF
Abstract: This article examines the
interactional construction of language competence in bilingual
immigrant communities. The focus is on how participants in social
interaction resolve problems of understanding that are demonstrably
rooted in their divergent linguistic and cultural expertise. Using the
methodology of conversation analysis to examine mundane video-recorded
conversations in Russian-American immigrant families, I describe a
previously unanalyzed communicative practice for solving understanding
problems: by one participant enacting the role of a language broker in
a repair sequence. The article thus contributes to the existing
research on the interactional construction of language competence, on
the one hand, and on the organization of repair and its relationship to
social epistemics, on the other.
- Bolden, G. & Guimaraes, E. (2012). Grammatical
flexibility as a resource in explicating referents. Special issue of Research on Language and Social Interaction,
45(2) (Eds. Celia Kitzinger & Gene Lerner), 156-174. Journal
This article examines
one aspect of interplay between grammar and social interaction: how
speakers of different languages explicate referents that had been
referred to tacitly, i.e., without using an explicit referential
expression. The focus is on situations when speakers go on to explicate
the referent in the transition space, after bringing the turn
constructional unit to a possible completion. Depending on the
grammatical affordances of the language, rendering a tacit reference
explicit may either expose or mask this operation. Focusing on the
latter, we show that the grammars of Russian and Brazilian Portuguese
(and, to a lesser extent, English) enable speakers of these languages
to explicate referents by extending a possibly complete turn
constructional unit with a grammatically fitted increment and, thereby,
embed this remedial operation into the progressive construction of the
turn without engaging repair machinery. We discuss how tacit referring
and flexible word order can enable speakers to carry out this
repair-like operation in a covert or embedded fashion, and we examine
some interactional functions of this referent-explicating operation.
- NEW Furman, Michael. (2013).
Impoliteness and mock-impoliteness: A descriptive analysis." In Approaches to Slavic Interaction,
edited by Nadine Thielemann and Peter Kosta, 237-256. Amsterdam: John
- NEW Kaikkonen, Suvi. (2015).
"Put the card in": The use of second person imperatives by bookstore sellers - A Conversation Analysis. University of Helsinki, Masters thesis. PDF